This Mountains of Central Asia Digital Dataset (MCADD) consists of a collection of books, journals and maps related broadly to the Himalayas and its outlying attached ranges including the Hindu Kush, the Karakorams, the Pamirs, the Tian Shan and the Kuen Lun as well as the Tibetan highlands and the Tarim basin. These materials are housed on the PAHAR website (, and are freely available for use and downloading.

Some of this material was originally downloaded from the Google Books website, but often this material from Google has been augmented by the addition of maps and other oversize materials that were excluded when the original Google scans were done and/or by the addition of missing pages. For example, the Google scans of the 50 volumes of the Royal Geographical Society Journal, published between 1830 and 1880 do not include any of the oversize maps—now these maps have all been scanned and some 450 maps added in their proper location to each of the journal volume pdf files on the PAHAR website. Indexes of articles related to the MCADD geographic area (Himalaya, Tibet and Central Asia) have also been prepared for the more prolific journals, such as those of the Royal Geographical Society, Royal Central Asian Society, and the Asiatic Society of Bengal.  The article indexes are available at the top of the file lists for these journals.

The MCADD collection also includes materials not available elsewhere on the internet, which have been scanned directly from paper text material by PAHAR and added to the collection as pdf files. An effort has been made to search out rare and difficult-to-obtain materials, scan them, and include them in the dataset when possible. The map collection has been assembled from multiple sources, both digital and paper. Individual maps may exist in two locations in the MCADD collection—as a separate map with its own file name, and as a page in a book or journal publication. Large size maps may open in a pdf reader showing only a small size map without detail, but by zooming in the full details of the map will be revealed.

The MCADD collection is organized into three broad categories of materials—

Within each of these categories the collection is broken down further into geographic areas broadly defined as countries or subcontinents. Within each of these geographic categories the files are listed in chronological order by date of original publication. Each file name consists of the year of publication, the title of the item (abbreviated where necessary), and, when applicable, the last name of the author. Thus it is possible to search the database list of filenames by author, by title, or by date of publication.

All the text files have been analyzed by optical character recognition (OCR) using Adobe Acrobat, to make them word “searchable.” A letter “s” has been added at the end of each searchable file name to indicate the file searchable character of the file. A reader who has downloaded a group of files from the MCADD dataset should be able to search individual and/or groups of files using Adobe Acrobat and find each mention of individual words or phrases.

The MCADD collection is a ‘work in progress’, and hopefully will always remain so. New items are regularly being added to the collection as they become available, and comments and suggestions are solicited from all users to assist in its improvement and expansion. In particular, users are requested to contact if they know of additional digital or paper material that they believe should be added to the collection. Other website are also encouraged to link to MCADD materials in order to assist in its wide dissemination.

This material is placed here to help researchers, enthusiasts and mountain lovers. This material is for personal, noncommercial use only. We welcome links to this site from other sites.

If you have some non-copyright relevant material which is not available in this site please send the same to .

How to Browse this site:

You can select categories and subcategories on the top menu bar.  When you click on any of the sub-categories you will see the relevant details.

A word about copyright

In the modern world it is not always easy to be sure of the copyright status of an individual document. In presenting the MCADD dataset, PAHAR has attempted to select and present on its website only documents that are free of copyright restrictions. The Notice and Takedown policy published on this PAHAR website, details the process a copyright holder should follow in the event it appears an existing copyright has been inadvertently violated. PAHAR will remove from its website any item under legitimate copyright dispute, and will only re-post the item after a copyright resolution has been reached or the copyright claim has been found to lack merit.

Please also read our note on copyright and take down policy.

Happy Hunting,

MCADD Editor